Sunday, May 24, 2020

Comparing Hamlet And Oedipus The King - 1263 Words

In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, and Sophocles, Oedipus the King, both of the main characters conform to the same classic tragic hero formula. Oedipus suffers a life based on a pre†birth prophecy, whereas Hamlet finds himself burdened with the task of avenging his father’s death. In both situations, two kings must leave their innocence behind as the truth leads them first, to enlightenment and then to their downfall. They battle between the light, the truth and the darkness, the lie. Both Hamlet and Oedipus are similar in that they both showcase their mental state and stability, they are able to make swift decisions, and they both deal with relationships with women. Despite similarities between Hamlet and Oedipus, it is Oedipus’ consideration to do what is best for his people and city that makes him the more honourable man. In both plays, Hamlet and Oedipus’ mental state plays a big part in their roles as leaders. Both of these characters face a struggle bey ond their control, but deal with it differently. Firstly, when Oedipus is faced with a problem, his mental state remains very stable and confident. His pristine leadership is shown when he states, â€Å"You may count on me; I am ready to do anything to help. I would be insensitive to pain, if I felt no pity for my people seated here† (Sophocles 2). Oedipus’ ability to remain calm in a tense situation makes him the ideal leader of Thebes. When his city is faced with a plague, he is a step ahead ofShow MoreRelated Comparing the Tragedies of Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman1023 Words   |  5 PagesComparing the Tragedies of Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman The tragedies Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman have strikingly different plots and characters; however, each play shares common elements in its resolution. The events in the plays’ closings derive from a tragic flaw possessed by the protagonist in each play. The downfall of each protagonist is caused by his inability to effectively cope with his tragic flaw. The various similarities in the closingRead MoreComparing Hamlet and Oedipus the King Essay example652 Words   |  3 Pages Images of disease dominate Shakespeares Hamlet as well as Sophocles play, Oedipus the King, Both Hamlet and Oedipus face many problems with death. Hamlet is seeking out the killer of his father as well as Oedipus. They feel that justice hasnt been served properly and they must seek out the killer of their fathers in order for justice to be served. In both Hamlet and Oedipus the King, there is mass turmoil amongst family relationships, the inner problems they face, and the lack of free willRead MoreOedipus vs. Hamlet: a Character Comparison Essay1077 Words   |  5 Pagessuch errors in it. Oedipus vs. Hamlet: A Character Comparison After reading Sophocles Oedipus the King and Shakespeares Hamlet, it is quiet clear that Oedipus is by far the more admirable character of the two. Aside from Oedipus history and life experience, his superior character traits are also displayed in the way he handles several incidents throughout the play. One of the primary reasons Oedipus is more admirable than Hamlet is just their history. Oedipus is a king. He got there by savingRead More Comparison of Oedipus and Hamlet Essay1322 Words   |  6 PagesComparison of Oedipus and Hamlet Compare and contrast Oedipus and Hamlet. Is Oedipus more a man of action? Or is he more a man driven by whim and sudden, rash decisions? Which character is more selfless? Does Hamlet show any signs of selfish motives in his actions or inactions? Which protagonist seems more learned? wiser? more religious? more loving? more incestuous? Which seems to be a better murder investigator? Does Oedipus have any of Claudius motives when he kills the king, Laius? ThenRead MoreComparing Hamlet And Oedipus Rex1868 Words   |  8 PagesMartinez John Q. Davis English 103 Date†¦.. Hamlet Oedipus Rex In Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex, there is a seemingly close common relationship shown between the two plays regarding mainly the community and era in which they took place in. As well as different scenes throughout both stories which show very similar ideas from the writers such as, murder being the common theme in both plays. One example comes from the story, Oedipus the King, and it is that there is a direct relationshipRead MoreWhy Did Freud Use Oedipis As Basis?1355 Words   |  6 Pages?!! HAMLET Freudian theories are most prominent in Hamlet out of all Shakespeare’s plays. The most common repressed desire is that of Oedipus. In the myth Oedipus killed his father, and went on to marry his mother, without knowing who each of them were. In this myth the feelings are brought to light however in Hamlet they stay repressed. We only learn of it through the effects it causes. Hamlet is all about incest. After his father’s death his mother plans to marry his uncle. This is Hamlets firstRead More From Homer’s Odyssey to Star Wars - The Unchanging Path of the Hero2789 Words   |  12 Pagesdifferent. From comics or TV it is seen that heroes change physically and spiritually through time, but the heroic pattern stays always the same when moving from ancient times to todays heroes. The first hero whose pattern I am going to unfold is Oedipus. Just like all other heroes he lives an extraordinary experience which normal people would not live, and that is one of the reasons that the heroic pattern seems so appealing to people. People could read and think about the situations that would notRead MoreLiterary Criticisms of Shakespeare’s Hamlet Essay1234 Words   |  5 Pages This essay will discuss several literary criticisms of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. After skimming through several articles, I ended up with four peer-reviewed journal articles, each a different critical perspectives of the play: feminist, psychoanalytical/freudian, moral, and new historicism. My previous studies of Hamlet, as well as my rereading of the play this semester, has collectively given me a general knowledge of the text. My familiarity of the play made it easier for me to decipherRead More A Freudian Reading of Hamlet and Titus Andronicus Essay2542 Words   |  11 PagesA Freudian Reading of Hamlet and Titus Andronicus  Ã‚     Ã‚   In 1900 the eminent Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud produced a seminal work entitled The Interpretation of Dreams which contains the idea that dreams allow psychic exploration of the soul, that dreams contain psychological meanings which can be arrived at by interpretation. Freud states that â€Å"every dream will reveal itself as a psychological structure, full of significance, and one which may be assigned to a specific place in the psychicRead MoreEssay Death of a Salesman, Tragic Hero. Willy Loman.1503 Words   |  7 Pagesperfect tragedy is Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. ‘Death of a Salesman’ is definitely a tragic play, but is Willy Loman, the main protagonist, a tragic hero? According to Aristotle a tragic hero must possess ‘Megalopyschia’, otherwise known as an elevated status. Willy Loman is an unsuccessful salesman of the late 1940s. He is not perceived to be ‘great’ or ‘noble’ such as other characters in traditional tragedies including Oedipus Rex, Macbeth and Hamlet all of which whom are kings. Willy’s last name

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Treating Children of Divorce with Play Therapy - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4171 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/06/24 Category Psychology Essay Level High school Tags: Divorce Essay Did you like this example? Introduction There has been a growing interest in the different ways in which divorce impacts children (Landreth, Ray, Bratton, 2009). Landreth et al. (2009) suggests that children of divorce are affected in many different ways including emotionally, socially, and even psychologically. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Treating Children of Divorce with Play Therapy" essay for you Create order This disruption in well-being is often shown not only in the home, but at school as well (Landreth et al., 2009). It has become of great importance to continue to emphasize the need to provide effective services for young children struggling with mental health issues at an early age (Meany-Walen, Bratton, Kottman, 2014). Reports indicate that because children spend much of their time at school, institutions are an ideal location for children to receive these services (Meany-Walen et al., 2014). School counselors, teachers, administrators, and faculty spend a lot of time with students, and are sometimes the first to notice changes in behavior (Trice-Black, Bailey, Riechel, 2013). With that being said, schools have an essential role of identifying those students who need mental health services (Trice-Black et al., 2013). The challenge often lies in implementing those services in an effective and developmentally appropriate manner (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Applying play therapy in e ducational settings has been long encouraged by researchers, given that young childrens more complex verbal abilities emerge only as they progress in age (Trice-Black et al., 2013). This research paper will cover relevant research related to children of divorce, how divorce adversely impacts children, and different aspects of play therapy that this population can benefit from. The first portion will discuss children of divorce and their common reactions as it relates to the separation process. The second portion will discuss the different ways in which children of divorce are impacted in the educational setting. The third portion will provide an overview of play therapy. It will discuss different forms of play therapy along some limitations that come along with this intervention. Finally, with discussing multicultural considerations, information related to why play therapy is a beneficial intervention for children of divorce will be discussed. Children of Divorce Increasing divorce rates have led to more research related to the impact of divorce on young children (Kelly Berg,1978). As a result of divorce, millions of children and adolescents experience the dissolution of their families, and changes to single parent and or blended families (Connell, 2008). For some children, there are multiple changes as they realize that divorce is only the first step in a series of family transitions (Connell, 2008). Children may lose contact with one parent, and then be faced with the family to now include a stepparent and half or stepsiblings (Connell, 2008). All of these transitions can be stressful and impact childrens psychological well-being (Connell, 2008). Divorce is a time of great fear and emotional turmoil (Connell, 2008). For some young children, as new challenges and developmental tasks are confronted, problems may emerge or reemerge (Connell, 2008). Children who may seem to adjust well to the divorce may have difficulties arise later in the process (Connell, 2008). Divorce is an extremely unsettling experience for children and as a result, children must deal with feelings of insecurity and abandonment, which if not properly addressed, can lead to problematic post-divorce adjustment (Connell, 2008). Children view their families as support systems and the sources where they learn to develop trust and bonds (Connell, 2008). With that being said, loss occurs for some children of divorce on many levels (Connell, 2008). When the family unit breaks up, children lose the primary support system for their healthy development and growth (Connell, 2008). They might lose the support of the noncustodial parent, the sense of security the parent al unit provided, their home, their original school, and even their neighborhood friends (Connell, 2008). Their lifestyle might even be affected as uprooted families sometimes experience socioeconomic decline (Connell, 2008). Although childrens reactions to divorce vary based on developmental level, age, and several other factors, there are some common reactions (Connell, 2008). The feelings that seem to be common with children of divorce include anger, blame, anxiety, fear, depression, as well as feelings of rejection, abandonment, powerlessness, and hopelessness (Connell, 2008). Children of divorce tend construct their own reality in response to their parents separation and divorce (Mahony, Walsh, Lunn, Petriwskyj, 2015). Because every child views divorce in a different way, not all children react the same. Each childs reaction depends on the meaning she or he attributes to the divorce, and factors that are personal and family related (Bojuwoye, Olaniyi, Akpan, Orok, 2009). In terms of psychological adjustment, some children of divorce are at risk for reacting with both internalizing and externalizing behaviors (Ham, 2003). Externalizing behaviors include misbehavior, aggression toward others, non-compliance, acting-out, and delinquent behaviors (Ham, 2003). Internalizing behaviors include emotional distress, depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, withdrawal, and general unhappiness (Ham, 2003). Play Therapy The use of play therapy is based on a developmental understanding of children and can be traced back to the work of Anna Freud and Melanie Klein in their integration of toys and play into their work with children (Trice-Black et al., 2013). The use of play in counseling children was brought to the forefront as an effective and empirically supported intervention by the work of Virginia Axline, and built upon by the work of Landreth and numerous others who promoted the use of play therapy to meet the developmental needs of the children (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Play therapy has since gained prominence and awareness with the public at large (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Counselors typically use: (a)real life toys like a house with furniture, or kitchen set with food (b) energy releasing and stress reducing materials like squishy balls, and (c) creative expression items like materials for making arts and crafts or costumes (Yih-Jiun Sink, 2002). The use of play therapy is based on the developmental understanding of children and the agreement among early developmental leaders regarding the importance of play in a childs life (Landreth et al., 2009). According to Piaget, most children on the elementary-school level function at the two stages identified as preoperational, which is from two to seven years old, and concrete operational, which is from eight to eleven years old (Landreth et al., 2009). These stages are identified with chronological ages, but it is relatively understood that development is specific to the individual (Landreth et al., 2009). At the preoperational stage, a child is acquiring the skill of language where symbols are used to men tally represent objects (Landreth et al., 2009). Also in this stage, a childs thinking is rigid and limited to how things appear at the time (Landreth et al., 2009). This is the stage of magical thinking where children create unreasonable explanations for things that they do not understand (Landreth et al., 2009). Internally, the child has understanding and knowledge, but externally, the child still lacks the ability to communicate their thoughts to the world (Landreth et al., 2009). Play is the childs most natural way of communicating this internal awareness of self and others (Landreth et al., 2009). Symbolic play during this stage is encouraged, and allows children to freely assimilate their experiences without environmental restrictions (Landreth et al., 2009). Because the childs world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the therapist with an opportunity to enter the childs world (Landreth et al., 2009). The toys are like the childs words, and play is the childs language (Landreth et al., 2009). The child is not restricted to discussing what happened, rather, the child lives it out in the moment through play that reveals themes related to past experiences and associated feelings (Landreth et al., 2009). If the reason the child is in play therapy is aggressive behavior, the medium of play gives the therapist an opportunity to experience the aggressive behavior firsthand as the child attempts to break toys, while also allowing the child opportunities to learn self-control by responding with appropriate therapeutic limit-setting procedures (Landreth et al., 2009). Without the presence of play materials, the therapist could only talk with the child about the aggressive behavior (Landreth et al., 2009). Different Forms of Play Therapy Some different approaches to play therapy include psychodynamic play therapy, cognitive behavioral play therapy, child centered, directive play therapy, Adlerian play therapy, family/systemic play therapy, and school based play therapy (Peabody, 2014). Psychodynamic play therapy has three forms, including insight oriented therapy, the structure building approach, and supportive psychotherapy. The purpose of insight oriented therapy is to help the child master developmental tasks and resolve internal conflicts (Peabody, 2014). This approach is useful with children who have experienced trauma. The structure building approach is used with children who have problems with the development of object relations. This approach emphasizes empathy over interpretation. Supportive psychotherapy is best used with children with externalizing problems (Peabody, 2014). The focus is on developing coping skills and problem solving. It is often used as a supplement to cognitive behavioral therapy, which uses cognitive and behavioral interventions within a play therapy context. It focuses on the childs thoughts and environment. The child is taught coping strategies and strategies for developing more adaptive thoughts and behaviors (Peabody, 2014). Empirical techniques such as modeling are used. It is structured and goal oriented. In child centered play therapy, the non-judgmental acceptance, empathy, and warmth between the child and counselor helps the child to play out their problems and move to more productive behaviors. The therapist believes in the childs ability to be self-directing, and it is the childs choice to play or not play (Peabody, 2014). The relationship with the child determines the success of this treatment. The child is the point of focus rather than the problem. The purpose of child centered therapy is for the child to have a positive experience with a supportive adult who helps the child to find their inner strengths. Directive play therapy involves the therapist structuring the session for assessment and diagnostic purposes, and taking an active role in the play (Peabody, 2014). The first session involves building rapport with the child. The therapist tries to structure the environment according to the specific problem the child needs to address. It is often used with older children, or for dealing with very specific issues. Adlerian play therapy consists of four phases: building an egalitarian relationship, exploring the childs lifestyle, helping the child gain insight into his or her lifestyle, and reorienting and reeducating the child (Peabody, 2014). The play therapist also works with the parents by helping them to gain insight into their own lifestyle, their childs lifestyle, and the way that both of these interact. Parents also learn new parenting skills and can work on any of their own personal problems. Family/systemic play therapy just combines family therapy and play therapy. The therapist does play therapy with the child while d oing a family session (Peabody, 2014). Last but certainly not least, school based play therapy involves pulling from any of the previously mentioned approaches of play therapy and applying them in a preschool or elementary school setting. School based play therapy is often time limited, directive and guided, given that school counselors are not provided as much time with the students to conduct therapy as would a counselor providing treatment outside of a school setting (Peabody, 2014). Rationale for School Based Play Therapy Identifying early mental health interventions that are proven effective for young children and that can be delivered in highly accessible settings such as schools has been identified as a critical need (Landreth et al., 2009). Play therapy has gained widespread acceptance with clinicians as an empirically supported and developmentally responsive mental health treatment, but its use and acceptance in school settings has lagged behind (Landreth et al., 2009). Government reports on the dire status of childrens mental health in the United States have brought national attention to the urgent need to identify effective early interventions, and the essential role of schools in delivery of mental health services (Meany-Walen et al., 2014). Schools are in a unique position to identify young children who are suffering from emotional and behavioral difficulties, and to provide accessible, early intervention that can prevent the onset of more severe problems (Meany-Walen et al., 2014). Play therapy has been reported to be an appropriate counseling intervention for young children in school (Baggerly Parker, 2005). When a young child is in need of mental health services, school counselors may consider play therapy as a developmentally responsive and empirically supported intervention (Peabody, 2014). The use of play therapy in the school setting can help students as they strive to overcome many challenges that may impede social and academic growth and success (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Play, as the natural universal language of children, allows them to express themselves in developmentally appropriate means that can override the limitations of verbal expression and cultural barriers (Trice-Black et al., 2013). It provides a culturally sensitive approach because students of diverse cultures, socio-economic status, and varying academic and language abilities can communicate through the vehicle of play (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Students cultural and life experiences , which are often difficult to verbalize, can easily be expressed through play (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Research has also noted that school based play therapy is beneficial in that it can help children academically by providing the opportunity to address and overcome emotional difficulties that can hinder academic growth (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Play therapy, therefore, is an adjunct to the learning environment, and an experience that helps children maximize opportunities to learn in the classroom (Trice-Black et al., 2013). School counselors, through play therapy, can restore the much-needed emotional support, provide children opportunities to release their stress, facilitate healing, strengthen their sense of being in charge, and lessen the chances for long-term emotional harm (Yih-Jiun Sink, 2002). Due to space constraints however, many school counselors may struggle with setting up a play therapy environment (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Time constraints may be another concern in play therapy in the school environment. Sessions typically must be time friendly and structured aroun d non-academic times during the school day (Trice-Black et al., 2013). Rationale for Child Centered Play Therapy Child centered play therapy is an extension of Rogerian client-centered therapy. The overarching concept of child centered play therapy is based on Rogerss belief that all individuals, including children, have the innate capacity to develop in a positive direction if a growth-promoting climate is provided to them (Davis Pereira, 2014). The application of this idea in work with children implies that it is the therapists responsibility to facilitate a space where the child can safely express and explore their feelings, thoughts, experiences, and behaviors (Davis Pereira, 2014). Child centered play therapy stems from a nondirective theoretical orientation that focuses on the childs ability to work through their issues as compared with other more directive approaches. The primary techniques used by trained play therapists include tracking, reflective listening, and limit setting. Tracking is a skill that requires the therapist to monitor the play, show interest in the childs process, a nd begin to understand the underlying themes in the play (Davis Pereira, 2014). Reflective listening is a process in which the therapist responds to the content and emotions connected to the childs work. This allows the therapist to provide support and insight, and helps the child move toward growth (Davis Pereira, 2014). Limit setting allows the therapist to set and maintain specific boundaries for children to explore in a physically and emotionally safe and consistent environment. There are eight basic principles of child centered play therapy outlined by Virginia Axline that help to distinguish it from other play therapy approaches. In child centered play therapy, the therapist approaches the relationship from a place of respect, where the development of a warm, genuine relationship is established as a primary goal (Davis Pereira, 2014). Effort is made by the therapist to communicate that the child is fine as he or she is. This is done through reflection of empathy and genuine acceptance of the childs verbalizations and actions. It is the therapists role to act as a partner on the childs journey of healing and to accept the child exactly as he or she is in each moment, not as the counselor would like the child to be (Davis Pereira, 2014). The child is granted permission to do whatever they need within established limits. This feeling of permissiveness is established in the relationship so that the child feels free to express his or her feelings completely. Play is viewed as an expression of the childs world, and the therapist is responsible for working to understand that perspective, being alert to recognize the feelings the child is expressing, and reflecting those feelings back in such a manner that the child gains insight into their behaviors (Davis Pereira, 2014). A key component of child centered play therapy is that the therapist maintains a deep respect for the childs ability to solve his or her own problems at all times throughout the relationship. The responsibility to make choices and change is the childs. The therapist remains nondirective throughout the therapeutic relationship, and does not attempt to direct the childs actions or conversation in any type of way (Davis Pereira, 2014). The child leads the way and therapist follows. This means that the child is not rushed through the counseling process. It is a gradual process that is recognized and valued as such by the therapist. Following the childs lead in the therapeu tic process also allows the therapist to maintain a respectful appreciation for the childs culture and beliefs rather than imposing their own cultural background on the process (Davis Pereira, 2014). Finally, the therapist only establishes limits when they are necessary to ground the child to reality and to make the child aware of his or her responsibility. By allowing children to express themselves in their own culturally accepted ways, for example, through the use of specific songs and dances, culturally appropriate pretend foods, cultural rituals, or the use of language and storytelling, counselors can add to their understanding and ultimately their effectiveness as professionals, resulting in a better ability to help others to possess their own identities (Davis Pereira, 2014). This main strength to be considered with child centered play therapy is the potential multicultural impact it can have. This is especially the case when considering all societies differ in the upbringing of children, education, and influences such as parental expectations. Child centered play therapy is less limited by cultural differences and focuses on more culturally relevant concepts such as an emphasis on social and emotional environment, and acceptance of all culturally based aspects that the child chooses to bring into therapy (Davis Pereira, 2014). Multicultural Considerations Mental health professionals are strongly encouraged to consistently engage in obtaining multicultural competence across the globe. Multicultural counseling refers to preparation and practice that integrates multicultural and culture specific awareness, knowledge, and skills into counseling interactions. Counselors must take into account current social, economic, and political realities, while responding to the developmental needs of children in rapidly changing multicultural societies (Davis Pereira, 2014). Play therapy can serve as a beneficial intervention for integrating a culturally competent way of providing counseling services to children. More specifically, child-centered play therapy provides a creative, accepting, and safe environment for children to explore issues related to culture, development, and a variety of multicultural difficulties and issues in a creative and familiar way. Child centered play therapy is based in the humanistic orientation, believing that what ulti mately makes human relatedness is the quality of the relationship as well as unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and presence when working with children (Davis Pereira, 2014). With that being said, child centered play therapy provides a humanistic lens to view therapeutic work with children that addresses the constant need for multicultural competence in counseling, by allowing children to explore their worlds and issues from their idiosyncratic cultural perspectives without judgment. Child centered play therapy can be used in counseling settings with children to gain more understanding of the issues, culture, and developmental level of the child, as well as possible solutions across settings, age, gender, and race (Davis Pereira, 2014). This understanding is important when considering the need to address multicultural issues for children as an ever-growing minority and underrepresented population in the mental health profession, with developmentally appropriate interventi ons such as child centered play therapy. Ethical Principles An obligation of the play therapist is to act in the best interests of clients. This is extremely important considering the fact that play therapists clients are generally dependent on caregivers. Ensuring that the clients best interests are met requires monitoring of practice and outcomes (Davis Pereira, 2014). Play therapists establish relationships of trust with the children they work with. They honor and act in accordance with the trust placed in them. With that being said, play therapists are obligated to maintain confidentiality and restrict disclosures of confidential information to a standard appropriate to their workplace and legal requirements (Davis Pereira, 2014). Play Therapists respect the dignity and worth of all people and the rights to privacy, confidentiality and autonomy. Play therapists who respect the autonomy of the children they work with ensure accuracy of advertising and delineation of service information. Play therapists seek freely the informed consent of those legally responsible for clients and, where possible, assent from clients, engage in clear and explicit contracts, including confidentiality requirements and inform those involved of any foreseeable conflicts of interest (Davis Pereira, 2014). Play Therapists are aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and welfare of clients who are non-autonomous and dependent on others. Play Therapy Limitations Although play therapy has been accepted as an appropriate intervention for children, it has also been criticized for lacking adequate research that proves its effectiveness. Research often fails to validate this treatment because of inadequate definitions of what constitutes play therapy, research methods that often rely on case studies, small samples, uncontrolled studies, and last but not least, inadequate or non-measurable determinants of treatment outcome (Bratton, Ray, Rhine, Jones, 2001). Research done on play therapy has had mixed results. Research that can be generalized beyond individual cases has not really been done. Most of the research being done is coming from practitioners who do play therapy, and therefore run the risk of being biased. These studies however, provide good argument for the benefits of play therapy and provide good descriptions of it (Bratton et al., 2001). Some studies on play therapy are well-designed and have a comparison gro up to increase internal validity and eliminate confounding factors. Play therapists treat many different types of problems with many different children, which makes it hard to generalize to larger populations (Bratton et al., 2001). Different groups of children will have differing responses to the treatment. Other limitations as it relates to determining the effectiveness of play therapy includes the fact that different children are often times not given the same treatment because different play therapists use different techniques, which makes it hard to make comparisons. Many aspects of play therapy are considered to be immeasurable. Research suggests that there are four underlying limitations to play therapy (Bratton et al., 2001). The first being an inconsistent definition of play therapy, the second being varied training of professionals who practice play therapy, the third being use of different materials and modes of play therapy, and the fourth being inadequate statistical de signs. Most studies look at small samples and those that were large sometimes lack a control group, have poor statistical power, are highly subjective, or have low rater reliability (Bratton et al., 2001). Personal Values and Interests I personally find it important to take more of a person centered approach when it comes to conducting therapy. I am unauthoritative when interacting with patients because I find it to be very important to allow the patient to take the lead in the therapeutic process. Ive found that often times, this allows the patient to slowly but surely identify their own solutions to the problems that they came in with. I believe gaining the ability to create their own solutions not only builds self-esteem within patients, but also builds their confidence as it relates to knowing that if they were able to identify their own solutions during the therapeutic process, then they will be more prepared and capable of doing it again on their own in the future. I value the idea of every individual having the capacity to positively grow if provided with the appropriate space to do so. I find that utilizing a person centered approach often times result in patients becoming advocates for themselves. Because I am personally interested in person centered therapy, my opinion is that child centered play therapy would be most beneficial for children of divorce. My personal rationale for choosing this intervention over the several other forms of play therapy include the fact that it allows the child to drive the therapeutic car with the therapist meeting them where they are. I think this is very important because what Ive learned over time is that because of how we are developmentally programmed, its much easier for an adult to meet a child where they are than to ask a child to meet an adult where they are. Another major rationale for choosing this approach includes its emphasis on being a beneficial multicultural approach. I am intrigued by the fact that it allows a child to bring their own culture, values, and interests into therapy without having any elses imposed on them to influence underlying themes behind their play.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Challenges for India in the Next Millennium Free Essays

India ,like all other countries world over ,is at the threshold of next millennium. We have challenges to face as we prepare ourselves to step into 21st century. Let us briefly explore some of these challenges. We will write a custom essay sample on The Challenges for India in the Next Millennium or any similar topic only for you Order Now As we all know, India is a wonderful mixture of so much diversities – different religions,languages,geographical conditions, cultural habits and so on. maintaining harmony among these diversities against growing tendency of separatism is one of the main tasks lying ahead of us as we enter the next millennium. If this harmony is destroyed, the foundation of India is sure to collapse. Preserving unity among so much diversities is indeed, a difficult task . Especially , when we consider the influx of selfish, individualistic approach in our societies. The nation is built up on the value system of its people. The problems we have now – communalism, regionalism, growing violence, separatism are all directly or indirectly reflection of erosion of our basic value system. Re building this should start from each one of us , from our families, from our homes. It will then spread to the societies that we live in and will eventually keep on strengthening the nation. Ironically we all keep on lamenting about the pathetic situation of India without doing anything constructive to resolve it. Next millennium will experience unimaginable technological advancement. Nations all over the world are striving hard to keep pace with this. In India we face a Herculean task to prepare ourselves to meet this challenge . The basic ingradients required are proper education for all our citizens opportunities to flourish. Education should not be just for the sake of degrees or diplomas. People need to be educated so that they expand their horizon of knowledge, wisdom, attitudes and become real human beings of superior qualities. Considering our present literacy rate of and our budget allocation only this indeed is a great challenge for the next mellinnium. Providing education is not enough; we need to create enough opportunities for our people to use their talents. Considering our unemployment rate of we have to go a long way in stimulating our economy industrialisation. Rapid industrialisation while preserving our natural resources less pollution is a huge challenge to face in the next millennium. Economic advancement requires rapid industrialisation. Pollution, destruction of natural resources, urbanisation subsequent social tensions are the obvious consequences of fast pace of industrialisation. We need to carefully formulate our policies to have full advantages of industrialisation while minimising its negative side effects. Next millennium is likely to face acute shortage of energy. Conservation of energy expanding utilisation of our natural energy sources (solar, wind, wave etc) are the solutions to meet this challenge. We need to produce simple mechanisms so that the practice of using natural energy sources will reach common man. Our present political system has lost its credibility. Rampant corruption misuse of power has created an ugly image of politics among the younger generation and they prefer to totally detach from politics. This is not a desirable tendency for the future of the nation. We need talents in future politics of our country. It is a great challenge to cleanse politics off corruption and restructure it for the next millennium. We have already crossed 1 billion mark of our population. This rate of growth of our population poses great challenge for the next millennium where resources will be scarce. We need to enhance our efforts considerably to control this explosive growth of population. The easiest way to destroy a country is , perhaps, to destroy its culture. With the advancement of mass media , the erosion of our cultural heritage is also speeded up. Many western countries, after realising the evils of the so called ‘modern free society’ are slowly going back to their original cultural ethics. Where as , we in India , are on the verge of breaking it. In the next millennium, as world gets smaller smaller through media, it is a great challenge to preserve our cultural ethics. There are no easy solutions to any of these challenges we have to face. We, the younger generation, cannot remain aloof and let things happen just like that. We need to awake and seek ways means to live up to the challenges. Indeed , we shape the future – whether it is good or bad depends a lot on us. How to cite The Challenges for India in the Next Millennium, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Strategic Operations of Oman Oil Company-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Oman Oil Company and its Strategic Operations. Answer: Introduction Oman Oil Marketing Company was established in 2003 and the company worked as a leader in the countrys energy sector. It is providing superior customer service in accordance to the international standards. There are several of the core business activities of the organization, such as marketing and distribution of the fuel and the lubricant product, direct selling to the public and the private sector, aviation refueling and storage and distribution of the product. It has the highest number of human resources in the country and has developed several long-term objectives. Several business units have been developed which supports the overall strategy and the long-term business objectives of the organization. In the present times, the organization is facing several challenges due to the changes in the marketplace. The major rivals of the company are Shell Marketing and Al Maha petroleum which provides similar services and product offering. However, with the decline in the international oil prices, the profitability of the government has also reduced. It has resulted in decline in the companys income. The company is actively seeking different cost reduction methods to maintain the profitability of the organization. A strategic decision has been proposed to outsource some of the activities of the organization, so that the overall profitability of the company can be maintained. The activities conducted in house are outsourced so that the fixed cost of the organization can be transformed into variable cost. The outsourcing decision is the strategic issue of the organization as the company needs to determine which activities will be outsourced from the organization. Strategic Choices The focus of the present report is to identify the best organizational activities which can be outsourced to external organization. The primary aim of outsourcing is to make the organization more resilient to the economic changes. There are several services which can be outsourced to different companies. It includes energy trading and risk management (ETRM), supply chain management, enterprise asset management, IT infrastructure and the retail automatic solutions. Other than that, there are also several secondary activities such as finance, accounting and human resources which can be outsources to the foreign companies. The company can avail the benefits of cost containment by two services, namely, outsourcing manufacturing engineering services or outsourcing the activities related to the data center. In the oil and petroleum industry, the manufacturing process planning is a significant step in the success of the manufacturing process of the company. It is the process of selecting and sequencing different processes so that the manufacturing process can achieve the goals of the organization and satisfy the demand constraints. In this regard, a process plan document is designed which contains the information regarding sequencing of operations, work centers, cycle times and the production resource tools. It is mandatory that these routers are generated irrespective of the work load, quantity and the scheduling constraints. It provides timing of different operations and cost estimation of different components. It is also important in matching the operations, selecting the most suitable machines and determining the optimal time for the product quality requirements. There are several challenges in designing the process planning routers in the oil and gas industry, such as an increase in the competitive pressures, statutory regulations and the dwindling order sizes. These challenges require that there is close collaboration between the input providers and the customers. The document should be able to develop the core competency of the organization and develop its core competency in all of its future endeavors. The planning process is essential in optimizing the cost and delivery time of the product. Outsourcing the Process Planning Routers can make the manufacturing process cost-effective and efficient. It can increase the technical capabilities of the manufacturing process. The companies are using the orthodox approaches wherein the entire process planning team is working nearby the manufacturing site. This task could be handled efficiently in the remote location which can provide high cost-benefit analysis through the outsourcing of the service s. The process map ensures high productivity without any sacrifice in the product quality. Macro and Micro Environment Analysis In the business environment, there are different types of factors includes which can create an impact on business. The micro and macro environment of business are related to the external environment of the company. The Microenvironment is related to the internal and macro environment is related to the external environment of the company (Chen, Kim, and Yamaguchi, 2014). Following are the Micro and Macro environment of Oman Oil Company. Microenvironment In the microenvironments of the company, SWOT analysis framework is used. The SWOT analysis helps to evaluate internal strengths and weakness of Oman Oil Company. Strengths The strengths of the oil company is that it is a leader in Oman oil industry. Due to its strategic choices, the company is getting an advantage to lead in domestic market and access the attractive export markets. The oil refinery has one of the largest production capacities, with a total oil refining capacity of approximately 10million tons of crude oil per year. The company is mainly associated with downstream oil activities and provides service to customers according to international standards (Bohari, Hin and Fuad, 2017). Weakness The main weakness of the company is the decrease in the financial position of the company. Oman Oil Companys income is continuously decreased in the global market. Despite net losses, its long-term liabilities have shown no signs of reducing and as such, they are causing worry to the company. The competition from the foreign companies is also reducing the profitability of the organization. Opportunities The strategic plan of the companys investment helps the company to expand its business in the global market. The company also has an opportunity to take advantage to increase its position in the new energy market and to establish a Hydrocracker to improve the refinerysdiesel and jet fuelyields (Chen, Kim and Yamaguchi, 2014). Threats The main threat is the decrease in demand for oil products. In the last few years, due to increase in environmental awareness and the use of clean energy sources has resulted in decrease in demand for oil. In addition, rising cost in the refinery sector can also increase the operation costs. The foreign and the local competitors are using new strategies to increase their productivity and increase the profits of the organization. The declining profit margins is another threat for the business organizations. Macro Environment It can be deduced from the macro-environmental analysis that the external market conditions are ideal for the organization. It can be analyzed from the appendix that the country is supportive of the oil and the gas industry. The government supports the oil and gas industry as economy of the country relies on the oil and gas industry. The economic conditions of Oman are fairly good and the GDP of the country is one of the highest. As such, the people consumes petroleum and the oil industry products at a very high rate. As the income level of the people is very high; people consumes the energy products which is beneficial for the organization. The technical infrastructure and the technology in the country is fairly developed. Due to oil and the gas industry, the gross income and the profitability of the country is very high. The government has invested in developing the infrastructure which will be beneficial for the companies in the oil and gas industry. With the wide prevalence of the oil companies in the industry, the infrastructure of the country has been developed. The company can perform its actions with ease and efficiency in the presence of this infrastructure. Internal Environment Analysis The internal business environment is in control of the company (Liu, 2013). The internal environment emphasize on developing effective business strategies so the company can ensure long-term business growth. Following are the internal environment framework which defines the internal environment of Oman Oil Company. Sustainable Competitive Advantage It refers to company assets, attributes or abilities which is difficult to duplicate or exceed. It provides a superior or favorable long-term position over a competitor. The sustainable competitive advantage helps the business in creating a sustainable advantage over its competitor's. The main competitive advantage of the company is to provide unique and quality products to its customers. The major rivals of the company are Shell Marketing and Al Maha petroleum, but the Oman oil company have a large share in the market. Due to its larger share market, the company is able to maintain its profit (Vanpoucke, Vereecke and Wetzels, 2014).The products which are offered by the company are also different and unique. The company focuses more on quality; therefore it can retain customers for the long term. In addition, Oman Oil Companys competitive advantage also includes experts in the production and distribution team which helps the company in maintaining its supply chain management. Value Chain The oil and gas industry is a highly complex business. In the todays economy, oil has become essential products and it essential in all the energy requirements. These products are in high demand in industry, commerce, retail, and commercial/domestic purposes. The value chain of the oil company is divided into two parts primary activities and secondary activities. Primary activities The primary activities of the company include its core activities. The inbound activities of the company include storage and distribution of oil products. Oman Oil Company exports its oil products in the many countries. The inbound activities help the company in oil production. In the operation, the company turns raw-material into the finished goods. At this stage, the company refines and process oil through the different production process. The outbound logistics of the company is associated with selling final products to consumers. Through the effective supply chain management and distribution network, the company manages its outbound logistics. The marketing and sales activities of the organization are done through the distribution channel and effective sales techniques (Olson, 2014). For selling and marketing oil, company offer low-cost products to its targeted customers. In the services, the company makes focus on building customers loyalty through a high level of customers serv ices. The oil company provides quality products and services to its customers so they can retain customers for the long terms. Support Activities In the support activities, the first step includes infrastructure. This includes management, finance and legal etc. Oman Oil Company has well designed an efficient production process. In this, the company offer quality services and also offer effective infrastructure to its employees. In HR, the organizations workforce committed towards growth and success. The HR of Oil Company is providing training to employees so they can keep control on employees turnover. The Oman oil company is well aware of the technology not only in the production process but also in the provide customers services (de Souza and Mrcio de Almeida, 2013). In the procurement, the company extracts oil through its refinery. Mainly the support activities are outsourced to the foreign company. 7s framework The 7s framework of Oman oil company is as follows. Structure Business needs to be organized in a specific way. The structure of the Oman oil company is hierarchical with several divisions. All the decisions are moved from top to bottom and each task is performed by specific department (Singh, 2013). Systems The system of the company is associated with the strategy and internal process. This system assists in building day to day strategy and operations. In the Oman oil company, bureaucratic-style process model are followed where all decision are taken by the top management. Skills It applied in the all 6s process. For designing the internal environment of the company more successful the Oman Oil Company has led innovative ideas in the system and shared values with staff members. The skills of the company is based on providing quality products to end users and increasing efficiency in the production process (Szeto, 2017). Style The style of the company is to emphasize the organization culture. Each business firms has its own culture of complete its tasks and responsibility with that culture. The Oman oil company provide an open, innovative and friendly environment. The company follows hierarchical structure; therefore, it also has a high chain of command so it can establish high ethical standards within the workplace. Staff For the human resources, the company hires best employees and workforce. It is the central position of strategy (Gyepi-Garbrah and Binfor, 2013). The Oman oil company is providing extraordinary emphasis to the training and development program so they can take advantage of the competitive business environment. Shared Values All members of the organization share some common fundamental ideas or guiding concepts upon which the business is established. The shared value of Oil Company is to focus on providing excellent services and products to customers. Strategy It refers to the plan of action which prepares a company to respond its external environment. The strategy of the company is to focus on developing long term tactics and outsourcing (Mwangi, Nyamori and Maina, 2015). Through the outsourcing, the business can control over its cost of products and services. Porters Generic Strategies Each business organization has different market segment and according to these segments, strategies are developed. Following are the porter generic strategies. Cost leadership structure The cost leadership structure is based on providing low-cost products to the customers. When the company has large scale of business and large production then it can increase the market share use this strategy (Tanwar, 2013). In this strategy, the company offers low cost budget products to customers so they can retain them for the long term. In the present situation, cost containment strategy is important as the profitability of the organization has declined. Product differentiation strategy The generic strategy focuses to provide different types of products and services which are totally unique as per the need of customers. Such type of services are offered by the company when customers are not price sensitive and firms have unique resources and capabilities regarding the target market (Wicker, Soebbing, Feiler and Breuer, 2015). Differentiation drives profitability when the added price of the product outweighs the added expense to acquire the product or service. Focus Strategy It refers to the niche strategy. The focus strategy is based on a combination of above strategy. In this segment, the company offers low-cost products and services to customers. Such type of strategies are adopted by the company when it wants to target few market. Oman Oil Company follows the products differentiation strategy. The company is solely focused to offer quality of products (Brenes, , Montoy and Ciravegna, 2014). Thus, the company focuses on high-quality products and services to consumers. Bowmans Strategy Clock The Bowmans strategy clock model analyzes the current market requirements. This strategy focuses to offer low-cost products and services as compared to its competitors. Bowmans strategy is used to analyze the competitive position of the organization in the market. It explores the relationship between the customer value and the price. From the above appendix, the best position for the company is to offer products and services which are differentiated and unique. In this segment, the company maintained its profit and also it can offer high-value service to its buyers so they can enjoy a large share in the market. Integration The oil and the gas industry is unique and different from other industries. The companies in the petroleum industry are heavily regulated, requires intensive investment and highly proficient workforce. In the recent years, several companies in the public and the private sector have emerged which has intensified the competition in the industry. Several actions such as selling the marginal reserves, cutting back the operating and the overhead cost, reducing the return on investment have been applied by the business organizations; however, these strategies have been insufficient in increasing the competitive advantage of the organization. The strategy of backward integration in an appropriate method to enhance the competitive advantage of the organization. It can increase its focus on the oil exploration and production methods to increase the core competency. In the present, the manufacturing process planning will be outsourced to the foreign organizations. This process can be conducted at foreign locations; therefore, it can be used to reduce the overall cost to the organization. The backwards integration strategy is the strategy of vertical integration in which the company merges with the suppliers in the supply chain. In this method, the companies merges with the suppliers. The backward integration strategy is adopted to increase the efficiency and the cost saving of the organization. It can reduce the transportation cost, increase the profit margins and increase the core competency of the organization. The supply chain is the sequence of organizations, suppliers, resources, activities and technology which can increase the manufacturing and the sales of the product. The supply chain begins with the accumulation of the raw products and ends with the sale of the manufactured products. However, there are several challenges in the vertical integration of the supply chain (Hill, Schiling Jones, 2016). Several times, the vertical integration is not beneficial as it does not make the supply chain more efficient and cost-effective. If the supply chain could not ac hieve high economy of scale and provide input at low cost, then the backward integration is not appropriate. In such situations, the process of outsourcing can be used to reduce the overall cost to the organization. The outsourcing process entails the process of transferring the process-intensive and capital-demanding operations of the organization. Several functions which can be handled from distant locations can be transferred to the different companies who specializes in such operations. These functions are payroll designing, customer care, research and development and licensing. In the oil industry, vertical integration refers to the ownership or management of two or more stages in the supply chain of the business organizations. In the oil industry, the various states of the supply chain can be categorized as oil and gas exploration and production, processing crude oil and sale of the refined products (Sadler, 2003). Other than that, the oil industry production can be categorized as upstream, midstream and downstream production. The upstream operations refers to the oil and gas exploration process which includes drilling. Other than that, the midstream level refers to the processing of the oil at the production point which refers to the removal of gases, crude oil storage and transportation of oil to the refinery. The downstream operation process refers to the process of oil refining, storing refined products and transporting the products to the retail outlets. With outsourcing, the business organization will focus on the exploration of the oil in the country. Oman is an oil rich country and the exploration in the oil with advanced techniques can enhance the oil production of the organization. The organization should focus on the development of the techniques of oil exploration such that it can enhance business or establish competitive advantage. Diversification The diversification is the strategy of creating a competitive advantage of the business by diversifying the product portfolio. With the help of diversification, the companies can create new revenue streams, new capabilities and new solutions. The outsourcing process can also reduce the overall profitability of the organization. It is important in responding to new challenges and opportunities. The supply chain can address the challenges of other sector if they are not well-established. The oil and gas industry can reduce the risk and cost associated with the production with the help of adopting a diversified approach and efficient work practices. The oil and gas commissioning, carbon capture and storage, offshore wind, nuclear decommissioning, energy storage, thermal generation are some of the diversification approaches of the oil and gas industry (Scottish Enterprise, 2010). When the company invests in outsourcing decisions, it can reduce the overall cost to the organizations. As su ch, Oman oil can invest in other areas for risk diversification and profitability enhancement. Strategic Choice The SAF criteria refers to the criteria of suitability, accessibility, feasibility of the strategic operations. In the present, the strategic option of outsourcing is proposed. This strategic option is evaluated with the help SAF criteria. The strategy is suitable as the company is currently can increase its profit ratios with this strategy. Other than that, the organization can also invest in other areas as it will reduce the overall cost to the organization. It is an accessible strategy as there are several companies which take outsourcing projects and can complete hem in a small time (Kenny, 2009). The strategy is feasible as it will diversify the operations of the organization and will increase the profitability of the organization. Conclusion Conclusively, it can be stated that Oman oil is a leading business organization in oil and petroleum industry. The company has several competitors and is one of the largest organization in Oman. It has been identified that the company has ideal internal and external conditions and should invest in outsourcing to reduce its expenditure. The decision is evaluated under SAF criteria. It is examined that the decision is appropriate for the organization. References Quest. (2015). outsourcing manufacturing engineering services - a case study in process planning. Retrieved 15 November 2017 https://3fee7a1sld751eqrjr3a035t-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Outsourcing-Manufacturing-Engineering-Services-A-Case-study-in-Process-Planning.pdf Data Centre Knowledge. (2015). Energy Sector's Data Center Outsourcing Healthy. Retrieved 15 November 2017 from https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2015/02/23/energy-sectors-data-center-outsourcing-healthy Anton, R. (2015). An Integrated Strategy Framework (ISF) for Combining Porter's 5-Forces, Diamond, PESTEL, and SWOT Analysis. Bohari, A. M., Hin, C. W., Fuad, N. (2017). The competitiveness of halal food industry in Malaysia: A SWOT-ICT analysis. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 9(1). Brenes, E. R., Montoya, D., Ciravegna, L. (2014). Differentiation strategies in emerging markets: The case of Latin American agribusinesses. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 847-855. Chen, W. M., Kim, H., Yamaguchi, H. (2014). Renewable energy in eastern Asia: Renewable energy policy review and comparative SWOT analysis for promoting renewable energy in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Energy Policy, 74, 319-329. de Souza, C. D. R., Mrcio de Almeida, D. A. (2013). Value chain analysis applied to the scrap tire reverse logistics chain: An applied study of co-processing in the cement industry. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 78, 15-25. Gyepi-Garbrah, T. F., Binfor, F. (2013). An analysis of internal environment of a commercial-oriented research organization: Using mckinsey 7S framework in a ghanaian context. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(9), 87. Haselwanter, S., Muskat, B., Zehrer, A. (2016). Strategic Planning in Micro Businesses: Adapting the Strategic Clock for Micro Firms. Liu, Y. (2013). Sustainable competitive advantage in turbulent business environments. International Journal of Production Research, 51(10), 2821-2841. Metzger, K. (2014). General Electric. Corporate Strategy Analysis. Mwangi, R. M., Nyamori, R. O., Maina, R. W. (2015). Rediscovering success: A case study of CIC insurance group. Olson, E. L. (2014). Green innovation value chain analysis of PV solar power. Journal of cleaner production, 64, 73-80. Reinhardt, R., Domingo, S. G., Garca, B. A., Christodoulou, I. (2017, June). Macro environmental analysis of the electric vehicle battery second use market. In European Energy Market (EEM), 2017 14th International Conference on the (pp. 1-6). IEEE. Schuetz, C. G., Schrefl, M. (2017, November). Towards Formal Strategy Analysis with Goal Models and Semantic Web Technologies. In International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (pp. 144-153). Springer, Cham. Shakhshir, G. (2014). Positioning strategies development. The Annals Of The University Of Oradea, 977, 416-437. Singh, A. (2013). A study of role of McKinsey's 7S framework in achieving organizational excellence. Organization Development Journal, 31(3), 39. Song, J., Sun, Y., Jin, L. (2017). PESTEL analysis of the development of the waste-to-energy incineration industry in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, 276-289. Szeto, M. C. H. (2017). 2 Challenges for a community of practice: recognising complexity with the mckinsey 7s framework. Tanwar, R. (2013). Porters generic competitive strategies. Journal of Business and Management, 15(1), 11-17. 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Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Positionality Research and Social World Essay Example

Positionality: Research and Social World Paper Introduction: Before joining my Masters in Business administration, I have done few researches at my working places, not knowing that there are some many methods, approaches, etc. Thanks to Dr. Stephen Sommerville, for teaching me to do research in the professional way. Let my first research be the critical review of my own positionality i. e. who am I to me and in the others point of view? Does my positionality affect the research works I took or will take? Sitting back and thinking about the research that I have done in the past, I can say that the positionality had some impact on my research. In this paper let us see how †¦. Literature Review: First of all what does this word research means? Let us quickly see about the research just to get a brief idea about it before moving into our main topic positionality. Research is study to identify the in depth meaning of any subject or theories by probing deep into it and argue with relevant fact and figures. Research according to author S. Sarantakos is â€Å"they are usually employed for the purpose of gaining knowledge that will advance our understanding of the social world. It may also help in rejecting or supporting existing theories about the social world†. [1] We will write a custom essay sample on Positionality: Research and Social World specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Positionality: Research and Social World specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Positionality: Research and Social World specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Basically there are two forms of research namely primary research and secondary research. If you are using an accepted methodology for collecting facts and data’s it means primary research. There are three methods for primary research they are Survey method, Experimental method and Ethnographic method whereas secondary research means collections of data’s or facts from an existing resource. As Veal, A. J (1997) says that â€Å"secondary research is a research which is been done before were the data already exist, were the data might have collected to some other primary research but which might be used for the current research†. 2] There are two important methods of research namely quantitative methods and qualitative methods. The output of the research depends upon the method a researcher chooses. Quantitative methods mainly rely upon the data’s or facts collected from experiments or observations, they need unbiased samples whereas qualitative methods rely upon the interpretation of existing datas or facts. Next coming to approaches, there are six paradigms or approaches namely positivist approach, interpretivist approach, Empiricist approach, Rationalist approach, Reductionist approach and Constructivist approach. In this paper, I will be focusing on positivist and interpretivist approaches in detail as they are more related to the topic which we will be discussing in this research paper. Before defining positivist, positivism is the method of gathering or believing results through a repetitive analytical and scientific approach. The research of positivism obtained through traditional way. They are quantitative. According to the authors Boris Blumberg, Donald Cooper, Pamela Schindler â€Å"Positivism is a research philosophy adopted from the natural sciences. Its three basic principles are, )The social world exists externally and is viewed objectively 2)Research is value-free. 3)The researcher is independent, taking the role of an objective analyst. † [3] Now defining Positivist, he is person who follows the positivism method. Positivist is the person who believes in repeated analysis and experiments. Positivist believes that science is the tool to derive at truth and that it can help in understanding the world better so as to predict and control it. The authors Boris Blumberg, Donald Cooper, Pamela Schindler in their article say â€Å"Positivism implies the following assumptions. The social world is observed by collecting objective facts. The social world consists of simple elements to which it can be reduced. [3] Positivists observe in a single dimension, this usually results in explanation from that point of view and will be avoiding the other areas which are very basic. Now, after getting an idea on positivism, let us move to our next approach, i. e. interpretivist approach. This approach is diagonally opposite to the positivist approach. According to Interpretivist, to understand the whole complexity of the world the simple fundamental laws that are used by positivist are not sufficient. They argue that the observing the intentional behaviour and actions of human beings is impossible. Authors Boris Blumberg, Donald Cooper, Pamela Schindler say, Interpretivist argue that simple fundamental laws are insufficient to understand the whole complexity of social phenomena. More important, however they claim that an objective observation of the social world is impossible, as the social world has a meaning for human beings and is constructed by intentional behaviour and actions. Intentional interpretivism approaches meaning as intentional states of individual minds, to be understood by locating them within the broader network of an individual’s other intentional states and in a concrete context of social practices and interactions with others. The basic principles of interpretivism are, †¢The social world is constructed and is given meaning subjectively by people †¢The researcher is part of what is observed †¢Research is driven by interests. The assumptions of the interpretivism are.  ¦ the social world is observed by seeing what meanings people give to it and nterpreting these meanings from their viewpoint.  ¦ Social phenomena can only be understood by looking at the totality. [3] So for a successful research there must be the combination of both positivist and interpretivist approaches. What was my approach in the past researches that I took? After going through the above modules it sounds like I have been interpretivist by following the interpretivism approach. What is positionality? Positionality is the theory of seeing a person or a situation from his point of view and from others perspective for the research that he is going to undertake or have already undertaken. The Positionality of each researcher differs from one another. The real life of a researcher influences his or her positionality in the research work they take. There are few elements like personal thinking, religion, education, gender, work atmosphere and culture. Generally there are some impacts of the real life experiences in the research style a researcher adopts. According to Maher and Tetreault, Positionality is a term used to describe how people are defined, that is â€Å"not in terms of fixed identities, but their locations with shifting networks of relationships, which can be analysed and changed. 4]They also define positionality as the â€Å"knower’s specific position in any context as defined by race, gender, class and other socially significant dimensions of societal domination and oppression, position is also always evolving, context-dependent, and relational, in the sense that constructs of maleness create and depend on constructs of femaleness, and blackness and the term of colour are articulated against ideas of whiteness. [5]†. Now here come few new concepts like insider and outsider which have a great impact on the research. I would like to give a brief description on the both. Insider is a part of the group or community. It is good and advantageous for a researcher to be an insider in the research. Being an insider he or she can relate and feel the pulse of the other peoples in the group. He or she can understand the ideas and thoughts of the group. They can congregate the information more effectively from the community and there will be good synchronising of wavelength. For example an Indian doing research on â€Å"why the cricket (game) is seen more than a game in India? †, has an advantage of being an insider in the positionality. Coming to outsider, he or she is not a part of the group or community. Generally they may find it difficult to relate to the situation and start doing the research than an insider. Outsider needs to assume or imagine the concept whereas an insider can relate to it. For example an American will hold the outsider positionality when he or she do a research on â€Å"why cricket (game) is seen more than a game in India? † Fine, who is a good researcher? Researcher is the one who studies about a specific topic thoroughly by collecting data’s and information using different methods and analyse it so as to present the given topic in a detailed and accurate manner. Few qualities expected from good researcher, Should seek for the truth by going in depth in the research taken. Do not blindly try to prove his hypothesis but try to test it. †¢Stay focus on the topic. He should not get distracted or influenced by elements like budget, personal problem, etc †¢Must believe in his ideas. †¢Be a good team player †¢Persistence and proactive †¢Acceptance of new ideas, information and techniques open minded †¢Be positive and should not be afraid of failure. [6] As said in the beginning of the paper, now I will try to position myself from two points of views, who am I to me and how I am to others. Who am I? Effect of my positionality on the Research: I am born in Tiruchirapalli, south India in a joint family, lived with grant parents, uncles, aunts and cousins. I did my early part of schooling in Tiruchirapalli before moving to Chennai, India at the age of 14 as I my father started a business in this part of India. My parents wanted to give us (me, my two sisters and a brother) a good education, even though my father was the only bread winner; we did our schooling from one of the reputed institution (this is another reason for us shifting from our native). This part of life had a great impact on my lifestyle and upbringing. It taught me to take up things serious. I come from an orthodox Hindu family which had a high belief in the God and moral values. As I spent my early days with my grandparents, who used tell stories from the Hindu mythologies has influenced me in my growth with high spiritual values and beliefs. These values and beliefs are inclined in me. According to my religion, there is a belief that what we are getting is already assigned to us and we will acquire knowledge through experience. This sounds similar to that of interpretivism. Growing up in the different culture has also influenced me. For instance Tiruchirapalli is more of spiritual city with lot of temples whereas Chennai is happening city with people from different culture, country. After finishing my schooling and I wanted to do Bachelors in Commerce but I had to take up work due to my family situation. So I started working in a private aquarium company (small business) that was owned by one of my relative. But I was feeling sorry for my parents who wanted to see me with a Masters degree from a good institute abroad. Whilst working I started to do my Bachelors of Commerce degree through distance education. After my degree I taught that now I can try for my master’s and started working towards it. My goal is start my own business, so I wanted to do Masters in Business administration. For doing it I need experience which I had. Was that enough? No, it needed more. The organisation I worked taught me many things in small business; I taught it’s the time for me to shift my gears to next level (grow). So I joined a multi-national company who were producing and selling E-mail management software as a business development executive. They have their head office in USA. My family and friends too felt that it was a wise decision for me to shift job because I will get international exposure. I gained nice experience by working in the multinational company, like interaction with foreign clients, knowing the economy of their countries, their business environment. To make my parents and my dream come true, with the experience I got from my work, I am doing my Masters in Business Administration in London, UK. In 2003, at my first work place, the company was facing time lag problem Because of which the products were not reaching the customers on time and lots of complain of bad packaging. The management started to put pressure on us. Management wanted me to see through this problem. I readily accepted it as it will be helpful for me when I start my business. I taught of analysing the situation (research). Here I would like to remind my introduction, I was not aware of the methods and techniques that time. I believed, it would be easy for me to communicate with my colleagues and understand them better as I am one among them (insider). My brought up in joint family helped me to work together and cultural background helped me in mingle with them easily. I gathered information from each workers, register and enquired with security to see where we are going wrong. The research revealed the time are lost in †¢Taking rest (they get exhausted fast because of humidity) †¢Long tea breaks and lunch breaks (has to go out and have lunch in restaurants which is time consuming) †¢Toilet break Now I have found the problem, next I discussed about the solution. I got different kinds of suggestions like providing tea and snacks, free lunch, extended lunch breaks, etc I was in the position to analyse the problem, the result should be fair and benefit to both management and employee. I discussed with the accountant and team leaders and came up with a proposal that tea and snacks should be provided free of cost in the evening, subsidised lunch (25% of cost will be bared by workers and 75% by management), workers should go in batches for lunch so that the work will going without any stop, workers should behave in matured manner and should realise that they are being paid for their work, the main doors should be closed at 9:05am and will again open at 4:45pm, etc. Next day a meeting was held and the proposal was presented to management and they agreed to the proposal. It was implemented from next month. Now the management is happy that their work is going fine and the workers are happy and comfortable. Management congratulated me and the workers gave a party to thank me, while some asked me to mind my own business. Overall, I am also happy that my work has been recognised. Critical Review: Critically reviewing my positionality, the successful output of the research is because I was an insider. The insider effect helped me to easily relate to the problem and favoured to a better conclusion. I have taken the interpretivist approach in the above research. I have been fair to both the parties, the real success of the research was that I as able to see my result practically. It helped me to analyse my positionality that it made both the parties happy. My positionality has influenced the research I have done. Next research I take will have more professional approach because of my path to understand research methods. Conclusion: To conclude, I have benefited from this research paper, it has helped me to understand positionality and ways of approach towards a topic. This piece of work has taught me different methods, styles and process of research, in detail. This assignment has proved that positionality of a researcher has an impact on the research he takes. This research will be a stepping stone to achive my goal of starting and running a business. The best research will be a combination of qualitative and quantitative research and mix of positivism and interpretivism approach. Before finishing my paper, I would like to thank all the reference authors and Dr. Stephen Sommerville for his eachings and the opportunity to present this paper. References: 1] Author Sir S. Sarantakos, Social Research, second edition page, 2. 2] Veal, A. J. (1997) Research Methods for Leisure Tourism Practical guide, London, Pitman. 3]http://highered. mcgrawhill. com/sites/dl/free/007710742x/249450/01Chap01. PDF (last accessed on 20th March’2008) 4] Maher Tetreault, 1994, p. 164 5] Maher and Tetreault, 1997, p. 197 6]http://www. publicaffairs. ubc. ca/ubcrepor ts/2002/02oct10/goodresearch. html (last accessed on 20th March’2008)

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Goodman Brown’s Battle with Good and Evil Essay Essays

Goodman Brown’s Battle with Good and Evil Essay Essays Goodman Brown’s Battle with Good and Evil Essay Essay Goodman Brown’s Battle with Good and Evil Essay Essay In â€Å"Young Goodman Brown. † the scene plays an of import function. It provides symbolism to certain events and provokes emotions amongst the characters. particularly those of Goodman Brown. The cardinal thought of the narrative is the struggle in Goodman Brown between fall ining the Satan and staying â€Å"good. † It is a really hard journey for Brown. as he travels through the forests. all the while thought of the â€Å"good† things he would be go forthing behind. like his married woman Faith. This internal struggle finally destroys Young Goodman Brown and creates a new adult male. At the beginning of the narrative. Goodman Brown sets out on his journey at sundown. typifying darkness and immorality. Before Brown foliages. he kisses his married woman. Faith. adieu. The name Faith is deliberately used to typify the religion in God that they both portion and besides what Brown leaves behind to travel on his journey. Faith wears pink threads in her hair. which give the feeling that she is an guiltless godly adult female. Before Brown leaves on his journey. Faith says. â€Å"pr’y thee. set off your journey until dawn. † This is demoing that dawn is a more pleasant and peaceable clip to travel on a journey instead than at dark when it is considered unsafe to roll approximately. This sets the temper for Brown’s escapade and foreshadows that something atrocious is about to go on to him. As Brown starts on his escapade. he remembers that his married woman had dreams of this peculiar escapade. dreams that warned him non to travel. : This feeling of uncertainness sparks a feeling of anxiousness in Brown as he continues walking through the wood and on with his journey. Soon after. the scenery around him begins to alter and the route becomes â€Å"darkened by all the gloomiest trees of the wood. which hardly stood aside to allow the narrow way weirdo through. and closed instantly behind. † This quotation mark describes the dark and glooming milieus that Brown walks through on his journey and creates the temper of fright and hesitancy as he continues on his manner. As Brown walks along. he comes to meet a adult male dressed in grave and nice garb. The adult male states. â€Å"You are late. Goodman Brown. † and Brown answers by stating. â€Å"Faith kept me back awhile. † In actual footings. he speaks of his married woman. but metaphorically he could be talking of his religion in God and how it about kept him from shiping on his journey. Subsequently on in Brown’s journey. he meets a adult male with a cane that resembles a serpent. typifying immorality. Brown so protests against the Satan stating. â€Å"With heaven above. and Faith below. I will yet stand house against the Satan! † He lifts his custodies to pray. and a immense black cloud hides the stars to which he prays upon. This black cloud symbolizes evil destructing Brown’s religion. Throughout Brown’s journey dark and visible radiation. white and black. all play a portion in making the scene for Brown’s milieus. When Brown returns place. it is daylight ; this symbolizes artlessness and freedom from the journey he merely experienced. Throughout the narrative. Brown goes from being a inactive character to a dynamic 1. The ground for this transmutation is because of his struggle with â€Å"the devil† which is external. and by the struggle within himself which internal. The struggle Brown portions with the Satan is caused by the Satan alluring Brown to fall in the dark side. The manner in which the Satan lures Brown is by converting him that his relations and town’s people have already crossed over to the dark side and denied their religion. The battle that Brown now faces is whether to follow his relations and town’s people. or to follow his religion in God and deny the Satan. which is Brown’s internal struggle. These internal and external struggles turned Brown into a dynamic character by the terminal of the narrative. Alternatively of believing and swearing that his relations and friends are godly. he now knows that they have all been tempted by the Satan and many have crossed over to the dark side ; he went from being swearing to disbelieving of his friends and his religion.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Food Journal Reflections Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Food Journal Reflections - Lab Report Example I had one and a half serving of vegetables and one serving of fruit per day (organic content) which I considered too little. For foods with animal products, I took a glass of milk for each of the two days. Most of the foods I ate are local foods. Most of the foods stocked in the grocery and supermarket stalls in the country are local foods. It is important to prompt the local food industry by consuming more of the local foods than the imported ones (Wang,2014). The local foods are of an immense variety each containing specific nutritional requirements.The average American eats one serving of fruit and vegetable each day which is too little to provide the necessary organic requirements. There is also an increasing amount of meats consumption in American households while foods containing other essential animal products like minerals are on the decline. A healthy diet requires that an individual eats a balanced diet every day while striving to sustain a caloric intake of about 2000 calories per day. This requires cutting down on meat consumption to at least once per two days and increase the intake of foods with organic content like fruits and vegetables to at least once per day. Along with fruits and vegetables, individuals should also strive to have at least every meal providing essential animal products apart from meat (Wang, 2014). Such products include milk, eggs et cetera. Wang, D. D., Leung, C. W., Li, Y., Ding, E. L., Chiuve, S. E., Hu, F. B., & Willett, W. C. (2014). Trends in dietary quality among adults in the United States, 1999 through 2010.  JAMA internal medicine,  174(10),